That ostrich in the office – is it you?

Photo of ostrich from the neck up, looking directly at the cameraIs there an ostrich in your office?

Maybe it’s you?

And what in the world am I talking about?


More specifically, hiding from risk. (For the record, ostriches don’t really stick their heads in the sand. But you get my point.)

Risk management and risk mitigation are key skills for leaders at all levels. Yet they’re seldom discussed and even more rarely taught … or, let’s face it, practiced.

Most of the time, we can get away without assessing risk factors for our projects, initiatives, and goals … but sometimes we can’t. And those times when we didn’t and should’ve tend to come back to bite us in the form of high stress, expensive delays, and flat-out failures.

With that in mind, here’s an outline of basic risk management steps to follow. This is far from a complete description (that would take a book, at least), but it will give you a starting point.


What could go wrong?

It’s not a question we like to think about or ask aloud, but it’s an important question – and the more important the project or goal, the more important it is to ask.

Let’s say you’re managing a project expected to take 12 months. You have a team of six people. You’ve done your project plan, and you’ve identified your milestone dates.

Risk factor number one: all six of those people are likely to take vacation time and probably a sick day here or there.

Wait. Vacation time is a risk factor?

Yep. Because I’d be willing to bet that in creating your project plan and schedule, you didn’t factor that in. (Stay with me; the assessment step will help make this more clear.)

And there are other personnel-related factors to consider: what if someone leaves the company? What if someone becomes seriously ill or injured?

What about external resources? What are you assuming will be available to you, but which might (because of some right-now-unknown factor) not be?

And don’t forget the whims of technology, the need to improve skills, and so forth.

And speaking of vacations, let’s say you’re planning a summer trip with your family. Delayed flights, illness and injury (don’t forget the sunscreen!), weather, car breakdowns, Internet availability, and other factors (depending on where you’re going) – all these should be considered.

I’m sure you can come up with more than I’ve listed (and you should!).


Some of the risk factors I listed in the identification phase probably seem trivial or unimportant to you. After all, we all know people get sick, and we all know people take vacation.

The assessment phase is where those factors are broken out and, yes, assessed for just how destructive they may be.

Each factor you’ve identified gets two numeric ratings: likelihood and impact.

Likelihood: on a scale of 1 to 10, how likely is this to happen? Employee vacations get a 10; in the course of your year-long project, everyone is going to take some vacation time. And as for your own vacation, depending on where you’re travelling and how many connecting flights are involved, your chances of having a delay in transit are (sadly enough!) a solid 7 or even 7.5.

Impact: on a scale of 1 to 10, what’s the potential impact? Employee vacations probably rank around 1 or 2 on the severity scale, but please note! Some employees are more important to any project or initiative than others, and a combination of multiple employees all on vacation at once could amp up that impact rating significantly. Meanwhile, if, for instance, you have a big event planned for the day after your scheduled vacation-destination arrival, that missed connection could turn into a big problem. (Let’s not forget delayed luggage. Argh.)

Now add the two together – likelihood plus impact – and presto: instant prioritization for the next step.

Note that this automatically manages the high-likelihood / low-impact risks versus those that are low-likelihood / high-impact.


You’ve come this far; don’t leave your future self scrambling to recover from something you knew could happen! Now’s the time to decide what you’ll do if a particular risk factor actually comes to pass.

For employee vacations, it’s probably obvious: make sure employees schedule their vacations in advance, and be careful not to have more than one or two people out at any given time. Similarly, if you have a mission-critical employee, be sure to have a plan in place to handle their absence. Will you conduct a clear, thorough knowledge transfer before they go, schedule their contribution to the project around their planned time off, or something else?

And for your family’s vacation, it might be best not to have that big expensive and / or meaningful event right after your scheduled arrival – or else have rock-solid fallback plans in place in case you’re delayed by weather, technical difficulties, or any of the other myriad travel challenges that might arise.


This has been a super fast, super high-level zoom through the most important steps involved in risk management and mitigation. In other words, it’s a starting point, and far from complete!

That said, you don’t need to practice this level of formal risk management for every project, and certainly not for your average day-to-day tasks. However, it’s worth going a little overboard in the beginning to establish a habit of thinking about these things. That way, even for those projects or activities where you choose not to complete the full, formal process, you’ll still be aware and alert for potential problems.

As the old saying goes, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Taking a few moments up front to run through these steps can save you a world of future hurt!

gljudson Leadership

How do you reward?

The cover of Punished by RewardsSeveral years ago, I read a fascinating book called Punished by Rewards: the trouble with gold st★rs, incentive plan$, A’s, Praise, and Other Bribes by Alfie Kohn.

The basic premise is that, as the back-of-the-book blurb summarizes, “people actually do inferior work when they are enticed with money, grades, or other incentives. The more we use artificial inducements to motivate people, the more they lose interest in what we’re bribing them to do.”

That word – “bribing” – is telling, isn’t it?

And we know from studies by Gallup and other researchers that money (salary, bonuses, commissions, and so forth) is not the primary driver behind employee engagement and job satisfaction.

So how do we reward?

The challenges of incentives, engagement, and motivation are far from straightforward. In fact, Kohn suggests that we cannot “motivate” someone to do something; instead, “All we can do is set up certain conditions that maximize the probability of their developing an interest in what they are doing and remove the condidtions that function as constraints.”

That’s a mouthful. What I understand from it, on a very basic level, is that we need to follow a few simple steps.

Understand your people

It should be no surprise to you that people are different, which means how they prefer to be appreciated varies from individual to individual.

At the very broadest level, an extrovert typically loves public recognition, whereas an introvert typically prefers more privacy. Please note the word “typically”; this is not true of all extroverts and all introverts… which is why I say, Understand your people!

If you’ve read some of my articles on Professional Empathy, especially the three listed below, you’ll have a good sense of what I’m recommending. (Each opens in a separate tab, so you won’t lose your place here. The second – the three levels of empathy – is one of my most-read articles.)

What IS empathy, anyway?
The three levels of empathy
A simple, fun empathy experiment

“Fair” is not “equivalent”

If you’ve taken the time to think about the differences between your team members, you’ll quickly come to realize that equivalency is a trap.

Fair means treating people according to the good old Platinum Rule: how they want to be treated. Not how their cubicle neighbor wants to be treated (that’s the equivalency trap), and not how you want to be treated (a variation on the equivalency trap). How they want to be treated – each individual – that’s what fair means.

(Here’s another relevant article: Is that fair?)

Reward appropriately

That, of course, is the punch line.

And there’s a LOT that goes into that simple statement: reward appropriately.

I’ll break it down into a few ideas for you, but remember: the first step is always to understand your people. And understanding your people means knowing them well enough to have a sense of who they are and what they enjoy.

A few ideas

It starts by knowing what you’re rewarding them for. Is it a big achievement? Go for one of the ideas below. Something smaller, but something they did especially well? Check out this article: Why thank you isn’t enough.

These ideas are just to get your idea-generator going. And remember, in some cases a bonus, raise, or promotion (with raise) is absolutely appropriate. I’m leaving out the financial rewards here because your organization undoubtedly already has a well-established process for them. It’s the non-financial aspect of reward and recognition that we’re exploring here.

Speaking as a knitter myself, if I had a knitter or crocheter on my team, I would absolutely get them a gift certificate for a good local yarn shop or online outlet.

Pay attention to what they talk about (understand your people!). Lots of family time and kids’ activities? According to the season, there could be any number of fun events to offer. They love gourmet cooking? Try specialty stores such as Penzey’s Spices or a local gourmet outlet.

Are they ambitious and career-oriented? Perhaps you can introduce them to a valuable connection or mentor. (Be careful about offering to mentor an employee yourself; that can lead to perceptions – and even accusations – of favoritism.)

You get the idea, right? Paying attention to what someone enjoys makes the reward personal and meaningful, and therefore special.

Yes, it takes work

It takes work. It’s an effort to understand each of your people at that level. But you can systematize it easily enough – for instance, take a few notes when you hear someone talking about what they enjoy.

And I can promise you that the rewards of having a high-performing, productive, engaged team that consistently exceeds expectations is well worth the effort.

How you manage your team is just one of the eight key leadership topics covered in the Empowered Leadership program. Come join me in a free preview workshop, the Leadership Launch Pad, to learn the single thing every senior leader wants you to know – but probably hasn’t told you!

gljudson Leadership

How do we fix leadership?

Photo of a class of adult students asleep with their heads on the desksThis is a follow-up post to an article I wrote on LinkedIn last week asking “Where’s the Future of Leadership?”

How can we improve the working lives and careers of all employees and support bottom-line results?

It’s a simple question, and it has a simple answer: we need to develop the skills and confidence of first-line managers and leaders. And the old ways of doing so aren’t working.

We need a new model of leadership education.

The old way relies on “best practices” that are themselves old, arising out of an industrial-era command-and-control hierarchical approach that’s no longer relevant.

The old way either ignores first-line leadership training altogether, or it relies on an intensive educational process that puts cohorts of aspiring leaders through a set curriculum. Everyone’s on the same page at the same time, which inherently limits individual opportunities to learn from other people’s varying levels of understanding and experience.

The curriculum in these programs is set and therefore inflexible, limiting in-the-moment teaching of important concepts and skills based on the students’ needs and situations, and failing to take advantage of the facilitator’s own evolution and ongoing learning.

And these programs often teach with case studies, which themselves have two important drawbacks.

First, case studies are historical. Situations such as Enron, Volkswagen, and Wells Fargo (classic business-school case studies) are presented as self-contained big-bang events. But that’s not how they happen. These corporate meltdowns unravel gradually in small incremental steps. Case studies don’t provide insight into these small steps, and therefore don’t teach practical, useful ways to spot problems before they mushroom out of control.

Second, case studies are extremely difficult for an emerging leader to translate into their individual situations and experience, and so have little practical relevance for their leadership growth.

So what do students learn from case studies?

They learn to debate history. They don’t learn to identify and divert or mitigate problems at the initial, something’s-just-starting-to-go-wrong stage within their organization and its culture.

The old way of leadership development is also expensive, sometimes prohibitively so. High-value programs generally come with correspondingly high prices, putting them out of reach for any significant population of first-line managers and leaders in the organization.

But it’s exactly those first-line managers and leaders who have the highest impact on your employee population as a whole, and therefore – let’s be real! – on the overall success or failure of both your day-to-day work and your mission-critical strategic initiatives.

What I realized in asking this question is:

We badly need a new approach to developing our leaders.

We need a model that delivers foundational leadership skills training in ways that leverage the flexibility offered by technology to maximize student-facilitator interactions and minimize the impact on students’ busy schedules.

In practical terms, this means short, focused video lessons, concise handouts, and hands-on exercises and practices that participants can use immediately in their workplace.

It means extending the curriculum with weekly live videoconference calls. These must be structured, addressing additional topics relevant to the participants’ in-the-moment experience and needs, and never allowing any one person to suck up all the air in the room (sadly a fairly common experience in many group programs). These calls should be recorded for review or for those who can’t make the live call.

Each participant should also receive at least one personal coaching session, timed according to foundational content in the teaching materials. Weekly “office hours” time allows them to come to the videoconference space and receive in-the-moment coaching on any leadership situation they’re encountering or any questions they have about the material.

Finally, offering rolling admission into the program creates vibrant, supportive interaction. Since each participant is at a different point on their learning and leadership journey, they can actively share their different perspectives and discover how to mentor – and receive mentoring – from different types of people at different stages of the process.

Finally, the program must be deliberately affordable: low-ticket and ridiculously high-value.

These are the answers that emerged for me when I asked that question of how we can improve the working lives and careers of all employees and support bottom-line results. And therefore, that’s the program that I created.

What’s your answer to this question?

gljudson Leadership

Vision, mission, strategy, tactics – what’s the difference?

A six-level pyramid: vision-missino-goals-strategy-tactics-actionVision, mission, goals, strategy.

Tactics and actions.

Do you know the differences, the nuances, and how to move from one to the next?

If you do, you’re well ahead of most people – including, I’m sorry to say, many C-level executives.

Yet strategic thinking is the unanimous number-one wish of those same senior executives for first-line managers and leaders.

Unfortunately, strategic thinking is completely off the radar for most of those first-line managers and leaders. No surprise: up until now, their (your?) career has been focused on executing tasks, and not on thinking about where those tasks fit into the bigger strategic picture.

And I get the struggle and confusion; it can be hard to discern the line between strategy and tactics – or, for that matter, between goals and strategy.

Here’s a quick guide through the pyramid, from vision at the top, to action on the ground.


Speaking of confusion, vision and mission are also frequently interchangeable (though they should not be!). If you look at what most companies post on their websites for vision and mission, would you really be able to tell which was which if they weren’t labelled? Often … not.

So here’s where we start.

The vision is an idyllic view of a future possibility, relative to the company’s work in the world.

It’s unattainable by any one person or even the largest organization.

For instance, my vision is of a world where people wake up looking forward to their workday because their jobs are meaningful, interesting, challenging, and even exciting.

Clearly, I can’t accomplish that by myself!


The mission is where this business will do its part in making the vision a reality.

I’m on a mission to make corporate life more fun. Not just livable; not just bearable: fun. Work shouldn’t suck. The corporate life shouldn’t be a rat race.

I can accomplish this within my sphere of action and influence.


The goal addresses the how of achieving the mission.

I have many options for goals that would address my mission, from corporate event planning to executive retreats to … well, I’m sure you see my point.

The goal I’ve defined is to train and support first-line managers and leaders, because they’re the ones who have the most impact on the most employees in the company, and they’re the ones who will become the senior leaders of the future.

(Note in case of confusion: yes, there are also goals that fall into the strategic, tactical, and action phases as well. This is the big, top-level goal.)


My strategy to achieve this goal is to create accessible, affordable training and support programs for individual first-line leaders, and custom programs for corporations, and to make these programs available to the largest reasonable number of individuals and companies.

I hope you can see that there are other perfectly do-able and impactful strategies that I could choose instead. For instance, I could focus on going into large corporations to conduct long-term leadership training programs for emerging leaders. Or I could create weekend leadership retreats. Or I could create self-study programs. Or I could write a book. Or I could become an employee of an organization and influence it from within, instead of from outside as a consultant.


Tactics are often broken down by category – for instance, product and service development and delivery; marketing; sales, operations; and so on.

Looking just at marketing, my tactics include developing and delivering a free online workshop every other Wednesday, in which the attendees learn something about strategic thinking (yes!), and I get a sense of whether they’d be successful in my group program. (To be completely clear, since this is a common confusion, this is a workshop, not a webinar … #notawebinar! … and you can learn more about it by clicking here.) I also have social media tactics, program delivery tactics, and so on.

The all-important key is that the tactics must directly support the strategy, which in turn must directly support achieving the goal. And of course the goal must support the mission, which must support the vision.

Action plan

We’re finally at the task level: what steps must be taken to support the tactics.

This is where most individual team members have lived for their entire career, up until being promoted into a management and leadership role.

And this entire top-down / bottom-up pyramid sequence should make it very clear why it’s such a challenge for them (for you?) to make the shift from task-oriented thinking into strategic thinking.

gljudson Strategic thinking

Conflict-avoidant? Get over it!

Cartoon of male swimmer escaping from a sharkLast year, I was part of a family Thing.

You probably know the sort of Thing I mean.

Words were spoken that shouldn’t have been, and other words weren’t spoken that should have been.

Then the situation devolved into a Bigger Thing because it wasn’t raised as a Thing until weeks later – by email.

One of the participants is, according to her own assessment, afraid of conflict, and therefore avoids it like the proverbial plague. (Or a man-eating shark; pick your preferred analogy.)

I get that. I’m not especially fond of conflict myself.

But I’ve learned that if I allow my fear to keep me from facing what’s happening, if the situation is frustrating or upsetting enough it will inevitably come out later, and almost certainly in a more destructive way.

And for me, if I can’t trust someone to raise an issue in the moment – no matter how difficult it may be for either or both of us – then I can’t trust that person at all.

How is this relevant for you as a leader?

You already know the answer, right?

Don’t avoid conflict with your team, your peers, or your manager.

If you’re fearful of conflict, educate yourself on negotiation, mediation, and conflict transformation techniques. Practice. Role play with someone you trust. Get a coach.

Do something. Because, whether with your team, your peers, your manager, or your family and friends, conflict un-addressed will undermine trust and undermine – perhaps break – the relationship.

gljudson Conflict

What happens next?

Yellow neon sign on black background - cursive "everything is connected"No task, activity, project, team, department, or even company operates independently.

Everything interacts with everything around it.

That’s not a metaphysical or mystical concept; it’s just reality.

The more aware and intentional you are about how what you’re doing impacts what someone else is doing, will be doing, or needs to do – the more effective, efficient, appreciated, and successful you’ll be.

When you ask yourself What happens next?, you’ll do things differently in order to make it easier for next to happen – whether it’s your next or someone else’s.

gljudson Strategic thinking

Are you a speechifier?

Photo of angry man and angry woman leaning on a table facing each otherThere’s a lot of standard, cliché-ridden instruction out there on how to be a better listener. Most of it hovers around the tried-and-true “don’t listen to answer” directive – meaning, of course, don’t do what we all do: listen with half an ear whilst formulating our response (rebuttal, argument, disagreement…).

Or, put in more positive terms, “listen to hear.” Listen to understand the other person’s perspective, listen to get a sense of where they’re coming from, listen to achieve what I call “professional empathy.”

It’s all good advice, and the world would be a better place if we could do this just a little bit more often. (I’m not asking for always, just for a little more often!)

The challenge, of course, is that when we’re riled up about something we’re deeply interested in, profoundly disagreeing with, or sincerely passionate about, it’s hard to listen in those ways. We’re jumping up and down inside, bursting with our desire to speak out and wrapped up tight in our certainties about our position, opinion, desires, thoughts, and perspectives.

Then we become speechifiers. It’s no longer a conversation, or even a debate; it’s two people holding forth, orating almost independently of each other – or, more accurately, orating at each other.

The more the other person orates at us, the more entrenched we become in our own argument and opinion – and the more frustrated and angry we’re likely to get.

And it’s harder and harder to remember to listen to hear instead of listening to argue.

I’m going to suggest an even-more-radical approach that will be even harder to accomplish.

Are you willing to be changed?

I first heard this question on the very first episode of Alan Alda’s Clear and Vivid podcast. He was talking with the comedian Sarah Silverman, and the conversation was enchanting, engrossing, and educational (as are most, if not all, of Alda’s podcast episodes).

[Y]ou’re not really listening unless you’re willing to be changed by this other person.

I had the podcast playing in my car, and I nearly swerved off the road. Whoa. Now THAT is listening.

I’ve heard him say it many times now. He talks about how it’s affected him as an actor as well as off the stage, and it’s clear it’s an important value for him – and a profoundly impactful approach for his life.

I can’t say I’ve adopted it wholeheartedly, but I’m working on it.

What about you? Are you willing to be changed?

gljudson Better conversations

Is leadership training worth it?

Photo of a class of adult students asleep with their heads on the desksHave you put your emerging leaders through a leadership development program?

Or maybe you’ve attended such a program yourself – or even taken the plunge to get an MBA?

Was it worth it?

I’m asking that very seriously, because from where I’m sitting – looking at the programs, talking with people who’ve taken them – I’m sincerely not convinced.

I think most leadership skills development programs available today rely on old models of education and old models of what leadership really is.

This old way relies on “best practices” that are in and of themselves old, arising out of an industrial-era command-and-control hierarchical approach that’s no longer relevant. Making matters worse, they often employ training techniques that are similarly out of date.

It relies on an intensive educational process that puts cohorts of aspiring leaders through a set curriculum. Everyone’s on the same page at the same time, which restricts and even eliminates opportunities to learn from fellow leaders’ varying levels of learning and experience.

Because the curriculum is set, it’s inflexible. This limits – or even eliminates – in-the-moment teaching of important concepts and skills responding to students’ real-world situations. And the facilitator’s or instructor’s own developing understanding and ongoing learning has no outlet for expression within this teaching model.

Furthermore, these programs often teach from case studies, which have two important drawbacks.

Case studies are by definition historical. Situations such as Enron or Wells Fargo (classic business-school case studies) are presented as self-contained big-bang events. But that’s not how they happen. These corporate meltdowns unravel gradually in small incremental steps. Case studies don’t provide detailed insight into those small steps, and therefore don’t teach useful ways to spot problems before they mushroom out of control.

Largely because of this, case studies are really hard for the emerging leader to translate into their actual situations and experiences, and so have little practical relevance to their leadership growth.

So what do students learn from case studies? They learn how to debate history.

They don’t learn how to identify and divert or mitigate early-stage problems within their own organization and its culture.

The old way of teaching leadership is also expensive, sometimes prohibitively so. High-value programs generally come with correspondingly high prices, putting them out of reach for any significant population of first-line managers and leaders in your organization.

But it’s exactly those first-line managers and leaders who have the highest impact on your employee population as a whole, and therefore – let’s be real! – on the overall success or failure of both your day-to-day operation and your mission-critical strategic initiatives.

What if there were an affordable, flexible, practical way to provide high-impact leadership skills training to the people in your organization who need it most – who need it before they falter, stumble, and fail, who need it so that they become high-potential leaders leading high-performing teams?

gljudson Career development

Is leadership really your thing?

"Bitmoji" illustration of Grace as a leadership geekI’m a leadership geek. (My LinkedIn profile says so!)

But that doesn’t mean I think everyone should be a leader.

I’m a self-employed business owner, too. (My taxes tell me that! ha!) And I certainly don’t think everyone should be self-employed or own their own businesses.

One of the things I emphasize over and over again, and have for pretty much my entire life (yes, going back into childhood), is that we all get to be who we are. We get to have our own interests, our own ways of being smart and creative, our own ways of working and living.

Which also means we get to be leaders in our own ways … AND we get to be individual team members if that’s what works better for us … AND we get to be specialists if there’s a subject we want to dive deeply into … AND we get to be multi-passionate if we have hordes of topics that fascinate us.

And so on.

The proverbial square peg doesn’t fit into round holes very well. It’s uncomfortable, it scrapes off important parts of who we are, and it’s not likely to lead to a fulfilling, meaningful, successful career (or life).

If you want to be a leader, great. I’m on your side, I’ve got your back, and I’m here to help you be the best leader you can be.

If you don’t want to be a leader, that’s great too. I’m on your side, and while I’m not the right coach or consultant for you, there are plenty of good people out there who could offer exactly the help you need – if that’s what you want.

Don’t wander into a career path just because someone else laid it out for you. Don’t follow a professional trajectory that society, your family, your boss, or even a trusted mentor has told you is “the one” to follow – unless it feels good and right for you.

Challenge yourself, of course. Push yourself to grow, and accept that growth requires change and change requires feeling uncomfortable and even scared sometimes.

But don’t keep taking steps down a path that isn’t yours.

gljudson Career development

Does employee engagement matter?

Photo of a young African-American woman sitting at a computer and staring out the windowThere’s a lot of flutter and angst around employee engagement and the latest trend of employee experience. Questions abound on everything from how to measure engagement on through to how to improve employee experience, leading to the ultimate dilemma: is it really worth the effort?

Do happy employees actually improve the bottom line?

For those of us who care about whether employees are happy and believe they’re making a difference, the intuitive answer is, of course, YES.

But intuition doesn’t generally lead to budget allocation.

Fortunately, there are studies that provide actual facts. A recent example started with research on which companies among the largest in the U.S. have top ratings for employee wellbeing (based on salary, benefits, work-life balance, training, and professional development opportunity, among other factors). It then looked at how these top-ranked companies perform relative to those with lower rankings.

The good news for those of us who care about our employees: these top-ranked companies really do perform noticeably better, as a group, than those lower on the scale.

Just Capital is the author of one such study; they’re a nonprofit that ranks the Russell 1,000 index (consisting of the largest companies in the U.S.) on these issues of employee wellbeing. Just’s CEO, Martin Whittaker, commented in a Fortune magazine article a few months ago that it’s basic human nature: “A better-rewarded workforce produces at higher levels.”

Does this sound obvious to you? Me too. But, as I mentioned above, things that are intuitively obvious don’t necessarily translate into funding!

So now what?

This is important information if you want funding for professional development programs in your organization – whether for yourself or for your team.

The data from Just Capital, along with other research from Gallup as well as the financial advisory firm Parnassus Investments (and you can find more with a little Googling), helps you build a strong case for investment in what CEOs and CFOs sometimes view as “squishy” and with little clear return on investment.

Combine this information with the cost of failing leadership spreadsheet available for you to download (just click that link and you’ll have it), and you’ll be well prepared to present a proposal for the training and support you want for yourself, your team, and anyone (everyone?) else in your company.

Whether you’re a first-line manager and leader, or a seasoned executive with managers reporting to you, it turns out that making sure the people working for you are interested and challenged by their jobs really does matter to your company’s bottom line. So … what are you waiting for?

(Interested in learning more? Here’s a recent article from Fortune magazine on the Just Capital study:

gljudson Career development